Sunday, May 24, 2020
My observation for the spring semester was placed at Pine Richland High School. I was able to watch over John DolphinÃ¢â¬â¢s twelfth grade British literature course. John Dolphin has been teaching at Pine Richland for the past eighteen years. I went to observe his class three times. Two out of three of those visits I was able to be at the school all day long to really get the feel of the way it is like to be at the school all day and seeing the difference of his eight classes. Throughout my time there I learned different strategies on how to keep the students involved, the way that a school of this size is ran, and the difference of how John taught compared to my previous observation teacher. The first time I went to observation I was in his final period of the day. This class had around twenty-five to thirty students in this class. His final class is his AP English class. During this day their first assignment for the class was a writing assignment to help prepare them for the AP exams. Using this authentic activity will help the students prepare for this upcoming exam. While the students were writing their responses, John Dolphin explained to me that at first he had an outline which the students had to follow, but know they write their responses all on their own. This scaffolding made the students more independent on what they had to write about since he kept taking away more and more directions (Ormrod 2014). He explained that at first he wanted to have them write theShow MoreRelatedA Research Study On A Student s Annual Scholarship Day At The Research Symposium917 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessomeone who has always had an affinity for knowledge, I believe my participation in the MARC U*STAR program would only enhance my understanding of the research field. 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I use my spare time drawing and looking at examples of artists or more specifically in my case cartoonist and graphic novelist. I look at their works as references and think things like Ã¢â¬Å"How did they do that?Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"How could I incorporate it into my own work. I also look at my own work and try to think of ways to improve them and learn from them. 2. Aside from skill sets, what kind of informationRead MoreIB Math Studies Chi Square IA Essay1418 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ Predictability of Social Media Usage to Grade Averages IB Math Studies Spring 2013 Table of Contents: Introduction/PurposeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..p.3 Data Collection MethodÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.....p. 3 - 4 Data Analysis: Chi-Squared Statistic Frequency TableÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦p. 4 - 5 Contingency TableÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.p. 5 Ã¢â¬â 6 Chi Ã¢â¬â Squared StatisticÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...p. 7 Degrees of FreedomÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦p. 7 Critical ValueÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2771 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2019/04/22 Category Entertainment Essay Level High school Tags: Video Games Essay Did you like this example? From niche counter-culture to a multi-billion supergiant, the video game industry has been launched to the forefront of entertainment. With mainstream attention comes public scrutiny and video games have been at the epicenter of many debates. Previous debates have embroiled the industry, enduring the claims of games causing violence and attempted legislation; the rise of playing video games professionally has brought into question its legitimacy as a sport. When the GamerGate movement gained traction yet another slew of discussions began. The movements goal was to bring ethics to game journalism after rumours surfaced of a video games receiving overly positive reviews because of a relationship between the journalist and developer. Opponents attacked GamerGate for being a sexist movement that was targeting women within the hobby, attempting to force them out. Out of this hysteria came arguments about the sexist nature of video games, its players, and the industry. Within th e scope of my argument, which acts in parallel to other discussions, is the representation of women in video games and perceived sexist portrayals. Video games fairly represent women within the medium, and while sexist portrayals exist they are neither harmful nor the full picture. Fifteen years ago, I started playing video games and have not stopped since. Watching the industry grow as I grew up with it, playing the original Xbox, playstation 2, Xbox 360, Wii, DS, PC, and Xbox One and a whole host of games that accompany these systems. My interest also expanded out into board games and tabletop RPGs, allowing me to meet and connect with more who share the same interests. In recent years, I have moved away from single-player games, holding out for ones that absolutely grab my attention and have transitioned to multiplayer games, competitive or co-op. Online play allows for a vast amount of player interaction and a unique experience separate from single-player games. I have en joyed a great deal of time online within clans or climbing a competitive ranked leaderboard. A great tool of modern gaming is video streaming, which has allowed a great deal of people, myself included, to enjoy a wider array of games by watching content creators play them. My love for the hobby is not blind, as many a scandal has come from the industry and current business practices and weak releases have left me perturbed,however these motivate me, as I hope they motivates others, to change my purchase habits and to go further and join the industry. My hope is to leave an impression on the next generation, a love for games, and to lead change in the industry as a developer. Fair representation is a matter of proportions. The percentage of representation should mirror the percentage of participating members. According to the ESAs 2017 report, the video game market is near 50/50 as 41% of US gamers are women (7). These numbers show that it would be fair to expect half of characte rs to be female in order to represent the playerbase. The report is misleading as the ESA made no distinction between genre or platform and did not clarify what counted as being a gamer, or video game player. Mixing player bases removes the nuance associated with genres. PC/Console gaming is vastly different from mobile gaming and blurs the lines of how they are made, the way they play, player motivations behind play, and even the reputations they hold within the community, mobile gaming very often being looked down upon. It is as unreasonable to compare League of Legends to Call of Duty, a difference of genre, as it is to compare an Xbox player and their games to an iPhone user and their games, a difference in platform. The report is further disingenuous when it claims, woman age 18 and over [31%] represent a significantly greater portion of the game-playing population than boys under 18 [18%]. The breakdown of demographics is being unequally compared. Woman only represent su ch a large portion because three age breakdowns were combined into a single bracket, it only stands to reason that the larger sample size would beat out the smaller, isolated one. Looked at on a one-to-one basis males under 18 make up the single largest demographic at 18% while females under 18 come in at a low 11% (7). The largest female demographic, woman over fifty, comes in third, at 13%, and even then is still tied with men over fifty (7). Games, and their players, can become so vastly different over minutia with individuals standing out amongst a crowd of clones that leaving out the macro of genres, platforms, and demographics is dishonest to the conversation. Looking into the nuance of the situation, while potentially overwhelming, paints a clearer picture. Nick Yee, co-founder and analytic lead at Quantic Foundry, painted such a picture in a survey that vetted gamers by their core-motivations, this survey was also one most likely to be found by people who identified as ga mers and are invested in video games, and then had participants list their favorite games, breaking the information down by gender. Compared to the ESAs 4,000 participants, the Quantic survey took in 270,000, of which 18.5% was female, a staggering 49,050 respondents. In the methodology Yee explains that the gamers were asked to list up to nine of their favorite games and acknowledges that responses are limited to the favorite games listed by a gamerÃ¢â¬Å"they are likely playing more games than they are able to list. This means that the percentages of the survey compare the genders of the people who mentioned a game in that genre, not that the numbers are compared to the entire population of the survey. The big takeaway from the article is that the gender gap across twenty-three genres, for female players, averages range from 2% to almost 70%. This is a 35-fold difference, and illustrates why an overall statistic for all gamers (ignoring genre) can be misleading and confusing(Y ee). Female players are just not playing certain genres in large numbers and the top three they are playing: Match 3 (69%), Family/Farm Sim (69%), and Casual Puzzle (42%), are not character driven or extremely conducive to storytelling. Furthermore, those genres are largely played on the mobile platform. On the flip side there are male dominated genres that also do not leave much room for character driven gameplay or storytelling: Sports (2%), Racing (6%), and Grand Strategy (7%) (Yee). Even within the genres the story is not so clear cut, outliers give interesting insight into how the data is playing out. Noticeable outliers are Dragon Age: Inquisition and Star Wars: The Old Republic with 48% and 29% compared to their genre averages of 26% and 16%, respectively (Yee). In fact, DA: Inquisition would come in third amongst the rankings of the other genre averages. So despite some genres having a mostly male audience, certain games are still attracting large amounts of female player s, comparatively. Alongside this there are games where story or characters, and gender for that matter, are less important that have a low female pick up rate. So what motivates a players choice, what drives them to become immersed into a certain experience or story? This is the beauty, the essence, of the medium. There is something for everyone who wishes to enjoy the hobby and they can pick and choose what fits for them, for video games: their genres, casts, and players, offer a diverse array of choices. With all these choices my opposition still wants to focus on portrayals of women that are treated in a harmfully sexualized and sexist manner. This is not the first time video games have caught flak for potentially creating an undesirable trait in a consumer, the first was violence. As many studies have long disproven, video games do not cause violence. Even the crime rates of the past thirty years show a downward trend of violent crimes, including forcible rape, across the bo ard that has coincided with the growth of the video game market (Infoplease). While correlation does not equal causation, the argument at hand should have seen said crimes get worse while games became more prevalent. Outside of this view is sexual assaults as these are hard to accurately pinpoint statistics on, however the pattern likely falls within the framework previously displayed. Lack of social influence continues into societal perceptions and attitudes. Researchers of a longitudinal study for CyberPsychology, Behavior Social Networking, a peer-reviewed journal on the effects of social networks, came to the conclusion that, there was no cross-sectional association between sexist attitudes and overall video game use for both men and women (Breuer, Johannes, et al 200). The paper does acknowledge that it is in contrast with studies that found sexist attitude links, but disregards those findings for reasons of short-term application and specific analysis. So yes, my oppositi on is correct that females are often extremely sexualized and have plenty of existing negative and sexist character arcs as Lara Strom and Michelle Zorrilla highlight in their articles. But with no tangible harm being caused by video games, no measurable negative outcomes, the issue turns into subjective feelings that have no ground to force change upon the industry. Subjectiveness and offense come down to a matter of perspective, as not everyone will view something in the same light. Strom complains in her article, a summary of gender research she read, about a binary of vixen or victim under which most female characters fall. This is a disingenuous breakdown of narrative storytelling as victim is a vague term; most, if not all, protagonists and antagonists and even secondary characters are victims as that is how conflict in a story is told, and conflict is what drives the plot. An often criticized stereotype is the Damsel in Distress, the epitome of playing the victim. Using U ntil Dawn as an example, a game I would describe as an interactive drama which holds a female audience of 37% (Yee), there is a cast of twelve characters of which half are female. All the female characters need rescuing at some point throughout the story, but these also all provide great opportunities for character growth and divergence. The failure of saving Hannah and Beth, Joshs sisters, leaves Josh emotionally unstable, setting him up to be the puppeteer of the nightmare which the games plot revolves around and leaves a grim discovery for the characters to discover later. Chris must choose to save either his crush, Ashley, or his friend Josh in a saw-esque death trap. A brush with death allows Chris and Ashley to mature as they share their true feelings for each other and sets Ashley up to later offer herself as a self-sacrifice to save Chris. Emily will constantly present herself as the smartest and most capable person around, but the weak facade quickly cracks when she is placed under extreme pressure and duress, demanding that others come to her aid. This can create an interesting and dynamic strain on the relationship between Emily and Matt leading to future discord within the group as events unfold. Even still are the stories of Sam and Jesse. Further complaints of female misrepresentation extend towards the sexualization of these characters. Michelle Zorilla, who holds a bachelor in Communication Theory and conducts video game research, explains in a compilation of research that [portrayals of] women were more sexy via physical build and attire clothing was more revealing [portion larger than men] were coded as naked often portrayed with large breasts. The observations at hand are demonstrably true. The questions I have for this conundrum are: is this inherently bad to do and what can be done about it? Is it wrong for a visual medium to use a visually pleasing aesthetic? What about the portion of female players that enjoy these depictions , even going as far to dress up as these characters for conventions. In western society, women have the agency to dress as they please. However, video game characters are lines of code on a computer that are told how to act, so what happens when developers are expressing this freedom of agency? In the case of the character Bayonetta, a highly sexualized female, who was designed by a female developers, what happens? My opposition has identified a pattern that holds true and deemed it a problem, but how should the problem be fixed? Voting with ones wallet is the best way to voice an opinion in a consumer market. Battlefield 5 is the most recent release in the Battlefield series; its opening launch week shows how this campaigns votes are shaping up. Leading up to the release, the developers and advertisements pushed hard on the fact the game would feature a strong female character on the frontlines, on top of standard marketing strategies. In his article, Tom Phillips, a games journ alist for EuroGamer, explains [Battlefield 5] sold fewer than half the physical copies Battlefield 1, the previous entry in the series, did upon its launch. He continues on that possible explanations for such a drop could be found in either digital sales picking up the slack or that promised content has not been released yet, leaving buyers to hold out. Speculation can go even further. Other highly anticipated games were released so close to Battlefield 5s launch and there was also backlash to the political agenda that some gamers felt EA was pushing. My personal reason for not purchasing is that I try to avoid EA published games as I disagree with their predatory monetization schemes and releasing half-baked games. A game like this is a godsend for my opposition and should be receiving the support and attention that such a victory would generally attract. If 47 percent of gamers are female [and] arent playing games with hypersexualized representations of themselves then wher e is all the sales for Battlefield 5 (Strum)? Even assuming that half the gaming market is female, perhaps it is unjust to treat an arbitrarily similar group of people as a homogenous entity. Gamers are a diverse cast of individuals even within their own genre. I, for example, enjoyed Battlefield games in the past while not enjoying most Call of Duty titles despite them being the same genre. I implore my opposition, or anyone who wants change, to find those games they enjoy, the ones that are shining examples of their ideas, and share as much love and passion as they can for those games. Let everyone know about these games and show developers that that market is there, and no matter how big or small said market is, nurture it. Amongst my own game library, ranking in as some of my personal favorites and most played, are games like Darkest Dungeon, League of Legends, and Rainbow Six: Siege. These games range from indie, created by a small development team usually for a niche audien ce, all the way to a triple A game, large budget with a large team with the expectation to succeed in a mainstream market, respectively. The games at hand are overly representative for their genres. Darkest Dungeon is a survival roguelike with a 33% female cast compared to the genres 25% female player population (Yee). None of the characters are sexualized and offer a diverse cast of character tropes: Arbalest, the battle-hardened veteran, Hellion, the raging barbarian, Vestal, the divine healer, and a few more. About 35% of League of Legends characters are female, with the female player average for MOBAs, multiplayer online battle arenas, sitting at 10% (Yee). Yes, many of the characters are sexualized in some way or have a cosmetic option that will make them sexier. But for characters like Elise, Evelyn, and Ahri this defines their characters; tapping into age old stories of demons, vampires and sirens that prey upon temptation. For others that have a sexy appearance there is m ore to their stories that more deeply define them and others are not sexualized at all, like the stalwart solar knight, Leona. Tactical shooter Rainbow Six: Siege has operators hailing from all over the globe to fight terrorism, comparing the 36% of operators that are female to the female player average of 4% (Yee). Yet another game with no sexualization where each background rich character offers a unique playstyle. Repetition is key: choice matters. Both consumer and developer choice. An extremely vast array of games across a multitude of genres and all people need to do is find those special few. Whether mainstream, underground, or somewhere inbetween the right game exist, not that the cultural relevance of the game should matter for it is an experience for the individual to enjoy. Who knows, maybe if enough like-minded individuals show change, instead of forcing change, some developers will follow suite. Perhaps all that is needed is a fresh perspective on existing material. However the situation is handled I hope it is approached with a love of video games for video games sake. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Analyzing Sexism In Video Games" essay for you Create order
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
In Euripides The Bacchae, disguise is used as an art form, seeing that Dionysus is the god of the mask who offers his worshippers the freedom to be individuals that are other than themselves. Hence, Dionysus, the most important character in the play, uses disguise when he enters Thebes after many years wearing the costume of a stranger, and accompanied by bacchants. It is only at the end of the play that Dionysus unmasks himself to reveal his true form to the people. We will write a custom essay sample on Disguise As An Art Form or any similar topic only for you Order Now Moreover, the rites alluded to in the play happen to be replete with masked dancers, choral performances and processions of citizens in costumes (Segal). Pentheus is the second most important character in EuripidesÃ¢â¬â¢ play. This man is the ruler of the state as well as the preserver of social order. During the course of the play, Pentheus acts as DionysusÃ¢â¬â¢ double. The two are seen to switch roles. What is more, Pentheus masks himself as a woman by cross dressing. He wears a wig and long skirts, stripping himself of his masculinity and authority, only to be with women who have been seen resting blissfully in the forest, feasting on milk, honey and wine that springs from the ground. The women are playing music, suckling wild animals, and singing and dancing with joy. Pentheus cannot resist the sight. In his womanÃ¢â¬â¢s costume, he is attacked by the ladies and eventually killed in the fight by his own mother, Agaue (Segal). Whereas masking, disguise, or the use of costume to act as someone other than oneself, is an important art form throughout the play Ã¢â¬â and EuripidesÃ¢â¬â¢ play would be nothing without it Ã¢â¬â the use of costume to disguise oneÃ¢â¬â¢s lecherous intentions leads to the death of Pentheus. There is a strong message from the divinity of Dionysus, which practically rules the play. The message is: creativity through disguise is desirable, especially when the intention of the one who masks himself is good; however, evil intentions are strictly punished. As a matter of fact, the punishment of the mask is inevitable, seeing that Dionysus is also the Ã¢â¬Å"god of confrontation,Ã¢â¬ with his big, penetrating eyes foretelling doom for those who misuse the mask (Henrichs). While it is true that Dionysus Ã¢â¬â being the god of the mask Ã¢â¬â is the model for Pentheus, who would like to use the mask to enjoy life to the fullest, Dionysus as the god of the play must exercise his absolute authority. After all, the teaching of virtues is the responsibility of god. When Pentheus uses the mask just to eyeball the ladies in their private moments, the omnipresent god must allow the ladies to attack him. Dionysus allows the mother of Pentheus to kill him for his immorality, seeing that the man with the mask has merely used disguise to satisfy his lecherous inclinations. It can be inferred from this that the mask of Dionysus, the god of the mask, was simply a tool to help the god live on the earth with his people. While living with his people, the god must take action against manÃ¢â¬â¢s wrongdoing. Hence, Henrichs quotes Walter Otto on the subject of the mask thus: Ã¢â¬Å"Here there is nothing but encounter, from which there is no withdrawal Ã¢â¬â an immovable, spell-binding antipode. Ã¢â¬ While the mask of Dionysus is a Ã¢â¬Å"sacred object,Ã¢â¬ it is also a Ã¢â¬Å"source of the fascination and confusionÃ¢â¬ for the people, given that Dionysus is wearing the mask to merely live among his people and judge them according to their good or evil deeds (Henrichs). In a way, Dionysus is fooling his people by wearing the mask. Even so, it is his prerogative to fool his people if he wants to do so. There is a vast difference between the god of the mask and the man of the mask. The latter has not been granted the right to fool the people. This is the reason why Dionysus must keep an eye on his people to ensure that all those who imitate him by wearing masks would use the mask for good as opposed to evil. The immediacy of DionysusÃ¢â¬â¢ gaze is a warning for the wrongdoers (Vernant). Nevertheless, Pentheus is totally unmindful of the godÃ¢â¬â¢s presence on earth. The masked dancers, on the other hand, do not have to be punished by Dionysus, for they did not use his attribute of masking for unethical deeds. The mask of Dionysus actually reveals that the masked one is not an ordinary human being. In point of fact, there is a Ã¢â¬Å"radical othernessÃ¢â¬ emphasized by the mask of Dionysus (Vernant). Moreover, it reveals the masked one as an elusive and enigmatic character who has the power to disorient all those who come across him. The smile of the mask may have allowed the masked dancers, at least, to understand that the attribute of masking must not be used for evildoing. Unfortunately, Pentheus could not understand the true use of the mask. After Dionysus has unmasked himself, however, the rest of the people may appreciate the reasons for DionysusÃ¢â¬â¢ presence among them. According to Su: The mask of Dionysus is a simulacrum not a representation. As Ginette Paris argues, Ã¢â¬Å"Dionysus is not the God behind the mask. He is the mask. Ã¢â¬ The mask of Dionysus is its own double which imitates nothing, a double that nothing anticipates. There is no original mask of Dionysus as such. The mask is always the mask of a mask. It is with this mask that Dionysus enters into the theater and becomes the patron god of the theater, a place which celebrates the art of miming, of disguise, of illusion, and of role-playing. Like the mimeÃ¢â¬â¢s operation professed by MallarmÃ © in Mimique and interpreted by Derrida in Ã¢â¬Å"The Double Session,Ã¢â¬ the maskÃ¢â¬â¢s performance does allude, Ã¢â¬Å"but alludes to nothing, alludes without breaking the mirror, without reaching beyond the looking-glass. Ã¢â¬ The mask of Dionysus defies Platonic or metaphysical conceptions of limitation. Through the mask, Dionysus introduces the unpredictable dimension of the Ã¢â¬ËelsewhereÃ¢â¬â¢ into the very heart of daily life. This Ã¢â¬ËelsewhereÃ¢â¬â¢ is the Ã¢â¬Ëdistancing places,Ã¢â¬â¢ where Nietzsche the Dionysian piper would like to lure us. This Ã¢â¬ËelsewhereÃ¢â¬â¢ is also the Ã¢â¬ËoutsideÃ¢â¬â¢ where Blanchot would like to lead us; it is a radical outside which has nothing to do with the dialectical struggle of the inside and the outside, and transgresses the limit set by the idea of a self, of the subject, then of Truth and the One, then finally the idea of the Book and the Work. Undoubtedly, DionysusÃ¢â¬â¢ mask also serves the purpose of helping his people to experience the difference between truth and falsehood. All that is seen by people may not be real. There are hidden intentions and objectives that we cannot see behind peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s actions. Similarly, the mask of Dionysus Ã¢â¬â while deluding his people with regards to the presence of the supreme judge among them Ã¢â¬â also allows his people to experience the fact of truth being mixed with falsehood in the lives that they ordinarily live. The fact that Dionysus unmasks himself at the end of the play is to teach his people the lesson to look beyond the obvious. Perhaps there are many shades of truth, or no truth at all in our visions of the world. Dionysus would like his people to be strongly aware of the fact that there is much more to life than what they observe. The mask of Dionysus is always smiling, which expresses the fact that the god of the mask is fooling his people by appearing among them as a masked character Ã¢â¬â solely for judgment, as shown in the case of Pentheus. Dionysus enters the theatre with the mask, which is believed to have risen from the deep sea. The mask appears foreign and strange Ã¢â¬â an enigma that the people of Dionysus must decipher. It is also an unknown kind of power for them to appreciate. In short, the mask with its penetrating eyes calls for an interpretation. Although the masked dancers are able to interpret the mask of Dionysus in a perfectly innocent way, Pentheus is punished for his wrongdoing by way of the mask. At the end of the play, however, the god of the smiling mask also reveals to his people that there may be truth or falsehood behind what they see. Thus, the strangerÃ¢â¬â¢s mask serves many purposes, all of which are intelligently designed by the god of the mask. How to cite Disguise As An Art Form, Papers
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Question: Discuss About the Unemployment in Australia in Last 5 Years? Answer: Introduction In current, unemployment has become a serious issue that mainly exists in the economies of the nations. It has become a major subject of concern for most of the nation. The increased rate of unemployment is influencing the economic growth and development of nations in a negative manner. The situation of unemployment occurs if a nation is unable to provide jobs to its unemployed people. Along with this, unemployment is a key measure that is required to determine economy health of a nation in an effectual and a more comprehensive manner. But, nowadays, the problem of unemployment is rising very fast; and it may create difficulties in the economic growth as well as development of a country. Moreover, the problem of unemployment is also exists in the economy of Australia. The economy of Australia is stronger than any other nation; but unemployment made the economy weak somewhat. On the other hand, unemployment rate of Australia has increased in recent years. But, in 2016, there can be seen a decrease in the unemployment rate of nation. Moreover, this research essay is useful to describe the major facts and concepts related to unemployment of Australia. This essay is beneficial to conduct an effective research to portray the situation of unemployment in Australia in last five years. Moreover, this research essay develops an obvious comprehension about unemployment in order to enhance the knowledge of researchers in an effectual manner. The essay is precious to show the unemployment rate, issues, sorts, government arrangements, and so on with regards to Australia. Also, secondary data are used in this research essay to portray the major aspects of unemployment in the context of Australia. On the whole, this research essay is advantageous to provide a concise study on Unemployment in Australia in recent years. Unemployment in Australia in Last 5 Years At present times, unemployment is a serious issue and also becoming more and more serious on the regular basis. It can be considered a major economic problem to entire world. The expression unemployment focuses towards the general population of a country who are jobless. Such individuals are otherwise called 'occupation searchers' who try all their conceivable endeavors to discover fitting employments as indicated by their insight and abilities. Unemployment rate speaks to the rate of jobless individuals or the aggregate work constrain exists in the economy of a country. These individuals do their best to look for some kind of employment in a dynamic way (Richardson, 2006). Besides, the unemployment rate of a country is ascertained by partitioning the quantities of unemployed individuals with quantities of accessible workforce. The conditions of unemployment happen at what time individuals are jobless and looking for occupation. Moreover, at the season of retreat, there can be seen a n expansion in the work rate of a country. It is a direct result of it diminishes the request of work compel in the economy of a specific country. In addition, business associations make utilization of cost-cutting methodologies at the season of retreat (ABS. 2017). In this way, there can be seen an expansion in the unemployment rate of a country. Along with this, the other certainty is that the unemployment rate is vacillated. It is not consistent. It changes as per the market request and financial circumstance of a specific country. The report of ILO assigns that, in the year 2012, around six rate of the aggregate work compel of the world was without an occupation. Also, it is perceived that, the monetary state of Australia is more grounded than whatever other nation all around the globe. The GDP rate of Australia is expanding consistently. It is an indication of enhanced financial state of country. The enhanced monetary condition assumes a noteworthy part to diminish the unemployment rate of a specific country (Skattebol, Hill, Griffiths and Wong, 2015). In addition, the underneath graph is important to show the expanded GDP rate of Australia: (Source: TRADING ECONOMICS. 2017). On the premise of the above diagram, a constant increment can be expected in the yearly GDP rate of Australia. A standard increment in the GDP rate indicates the ideal financial state of the country. Additionally, good financial state of country assumes a noteworthy part to diminish the unemployment rate of that country in a strong and a critical way. In addition to this, there can be seen a diminishing in the unemployment rate of the country lately. At the end of the day, it additionally can be said that, the unemployment rate of Australia has been declined because of the enhanced economy of the country (Sriramesh and Vercic, 2009). As of late, the unemployment rate of Australia is lower than the earlier years. A diagram is offered underneath to delineate the unemployment rate of Australia in a precise way: (Source: TRADING ECONOMICS. 2017) On the premise of the above chart, plainly, the unemployment rate of Australia was 5.7% in 2016 that is lower than the earlier years. As it were, it likewise can be said that, in 2016, the unemployment rate of Australia has dropped around 5.7 percent; and the present unemployment rate is lower than the previous years (Palmer, 2017). The diminished unemployment rate indicates the most grounded employment development inside the country. In addition, as per Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), it can be measured a bewilder increment in the business rate of Australia. Along with this, as indicated by the report of ABS, the unemployment rate of country was high in the earlier years. There can be seen a general increment in the unemployment rate of Australia. Be that as it may, it is diminishing now (Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2005). A table is offered underneath to depict the unemployment rate of country in a precise and an appropriate way: Year Unemployment Rate 2011 5.00 2012 5.20 2013 5.60 2014 6.00 2015 6.30 2016 5.80 On the premise of the information given in the above table, one might say that, the unemployment rate of Australia was high in the earlier years. The rate was 5%, 5.2%, 5.6%, 6.0%, 6.3%, and 5.8% in the year 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016 correspondingly. In this way, there can be seen a normal increment in the unemployment rate of Australia in past years. The expanded unemployment rate focuses towards the ominous financial circumstance of Australia (Gans, King, Libich, Byford, Mankiw and Stonecash, 2014). In addition, the Australian government is additionally dependable behind the expanded unemployment rate of country. It is a direct result of the legislature of country did not offer occupations to the employment searchers or unemployed individuals inside country. Along these lines, they were moving to other country looking for occupations. As an outcome, the unemployment rate of country expanded rapidly and furthermore turns into a noteworthy subject of stress to the admini stration of country. In perspective of that, the Australian government has chosen to give work to unemployment individuals of nation. Thus, in 2016, there can be seen a decrease in the unemployment rate of Australia (Ara Haque and Haque, 2008). The diminished unemployment rate is useful for the economy of country. The beneath diagram is helpful to depict the most recent unemployment rate of Australia: (Source: TRADING ECONOMICS. 2017) Moreover, truly, the unemployment rate of Australia has been lessened in the previous years. However, it doesn't imply that the issue of unemployment has been comprehended for all time. The beneath graph is useful to depict the Australian unemployment percent for the term 2003-2015. There can be seen a decrease in the unemployment percent from period 2003-2008. Also, the unemployment rate of Australia was 4.1% in March 2008 (Helpman, Itskhoki and Redding, 2010). It was the most reduced unemployment rate that has never been seen again in this century. In the above diagram, unmistakably, the unemployment rate is varied. It has expanded after 2008. In 2016, there can be seen an abatement in the Australian unemployment rate. The expanded unemployment rate of country is as yet a noteworthy subject of stress to the country. In perspective of that, the Australian government must create successful plans and in addition techniques to produce work or employments inside country. These systems would have the capacity to lessen unemployment rate and furthermore support the economy of the country in an adequate and a critical way (IndexMundi. 2016). In addition to this, there are four noteworthy sorts of unemployment. The Australian government must see every one of these sorts of unemployment and make occupations or livelihoods in like manner. Structural Unemployment: Structural unemployment is the premier sort of unemployment that may exist in the economy of a country. This kind of unemployment for the most part happens when a work showcase ends up plainly weak to give occupations to every one of the general population who are searching for employments. Alongside this, basic unemployment happens in light of the contrasts between the required aptitudes by occupation gives and abilities workers have (Richardson, 2006). Furthermore, this kind of unemployment concentrates on the auxiliary issues as well as insufficiencies that exist in the work advertise and additionally economy of a country. Cyclical Unemployment: Cyclical unemployment is the other sort of unemployment. This kind of unemployment by and large happens when there is a nonattendance of total request of work constrain in the economy of the country. In this circumstance, the administration of country can't give employments to every one of the general population who are searching for occupations. Additionally, in the repetitive unemployment, the quantity of unemployed individuals will be more than the quantity of employments accessible in the economy of a country (Sriramesh and Vercic, 2009). Frictional Unemployment: This is another kind of unemployment that for the most part happens in a country. At the point when a major distinction happens between the representatives and jobs than it can be viewed as a sort of frictional unemployment in the economy of a country. Besides, these distinctions can be connected with aptitudes, states of mind, work time, installments, area, and other main considerations connected to a business. Alongside this, frictional unemployment occurs because of disappointment among representatives with the occupations that they have done before (Ara Haque and Haque, 2008). In this circumstance, specialists try all their conceivable endeavors to inquiry employments and move starting with one occupation then onto the next employment to get full fulfillment. Seasonal Unemployment: This kind of unemployment happens because of the regular business of business firms. Tourism, development, and cultivating are the significant cases of regular business. In this sort of unemployment business firms procure work compel as per their needs and market requests. There are bunches of business firm those offer regular work to the general population who are searching for occupations. Unemployed individuals can catch openings in such kind of business (Richardson, 2006). As a result, one might say that, the above talked about are the real sorts of unemployment that ordinarily happen in the economy of a country. The administration must consider such sorts of unemployment to enhance the work level appropriately. Real Issues Related to Unemployment It is outstanding that, unemployment is a significant issue that exists in the economy of countries. In addition, the expanded unemployment rate makes various issues before countries. For case, expanded unemployment rate for the most part make social and monetary issues that are perilous for the general development of countries. The unemployment rate indicates the low salary of individuals; and low wage is an image of low usage of cash by the general population of country (Higley, Nieuwenhuysen and Neerup, 2011). Also, low utilization rate impact the economy of a country in a negative way. It is a result of the diminished utilization rate shows that individuals are unwilling to purchase their coveted items as a result of an inadequacy of cash. The lower utilization rate additionally impacts the free market activity sides of the commercial center. The fundamental explanation for it is that, individuals don't have adequate assets to buy all their coveted items and in addition administr ations. In perspective of that, the expanded unemployment rate and diminished utilization rate have negative effect on the financial development of a country (Murphy, 2013). Also, the expanded unemployment rate of country impacts the administration spending contrarily. The principle explanation for it is that, in the circumstance of high unemployment rate, the legislature can't gather charges and different charges from people in general; and along these lines the administration does not have adequate assets to spend on social welfare and foundation of a country. The expanded business rate negatively affects the way of life of individuals. It is a result of they don't have any wellspring of wage to raise their way of life appropriately (Castaeda, Serrani and Sperotti, 2012). As a result, the expanded unemployment rate makes money related, social, and financial inconveniences to the general population. These budgetary, social, and financial inconveniences are perilous to the improvement and development of countries. Moreover, there are various components that by and large produce the circumstance of unemployment in the economy of countries. For instance, enormous contrasts between the required aptitudes and abilities of individuals may make the issue of unemployment. These distinctions happen as a result of various reasons. For case, topographical contrasts, mechanical changes, word related stability, social contrasts, auxiliary changes in the economy of countries, and so forth can be viewed as real reasons of irregularity between required aptitudes and the abilities that individuals have (Seal and Penrith, 2008). As an outcome, it can accept that, unemployment a difficult issue that produces numbers issues, for example, money related, social, and financial issues in the economy of countries. These issues have various negative effects on the development, achievement and advancement of economy of countries. Government Policies to Reduce Unemployment within Nation In earlier years, the expanded unemployment rate had turned into a noteworthy subject of worry for the administration of Australia. The Australian government endeavor all its conceivable endeavors to diminish the unemployment rate inside country. As a result, there can be seen a diminishing in the unemployment rate of Australia in 2016. The Australian government is making and actualizing diverse procedures and strategies to decrease the unemployment rate that exists in the economy of country. At the end of the day, it can be accepted that, the Australian government is assuming various essential parts to gather unemployment rate and upgrade work rate in country. The Australian government is attempting every one of its endeavors to give employments to jobless individuals. It is likewise attempting to create openings for work; so the occupation searchers may land positions as indicated by their abilities and training (Milner, Morrell and LaMontagne, 2014). Along with this, the Australian government has gained huge ground in its financial approaches and work and welfare strategies in the earlier years to decrease unemployment rate in a useful way. Besides, the administration assembled steady and all around tuned macroeconomic approaches and furthermore built up an inventive climate of entrepreneurialism inside country. It grew well-working and in addition aggressive markets to produce openings for work and to give employments to the unemployed individuals. Moreover, the legislature rolled out improvements in the business game plans and work conditions also. For case, the administration created adaptable business plans and in addition conditions to underwrite efficiency at the working environment (Carvalho, 2015). With the assistance of these adaptable courses of action, jobless individuals wind up noticeably ready to land positions as per their inclinations. Like this, it can be expected that, these more adaptable game plans diminished the unemployment rate inside country. It is a result of with the assistance of these plans and conditions, more unemployed individuals wind up plainly ready to get legitimate work themselves. Moreover, doubtlessly, unemployment is for the most part dangerous for youths. It is a result of long haul unemployment consumes confidence of individuals. By considering these certainties, the Australian government embraced and executes coalition arrangement to empower work inside country. For case, with the assistance of this coalition arrangement, the administration will give a vocation responsibility reward installment to the general population who are unemployed and trying endeavors to discover reasonable employments. Furthermore, with the assistance of these rewards, adolescents would be inspired and bother free also. As indicated by the Australian government, the coalition approach will be useful to improve workforce interest and in addition profitability. It is a direct result of this strategy is putting forth motivators to those individuals who are finding and keeping a vocation for quite a while period (Kearns, 2013). Like this, the coalition arrangement created by the admi nistration diminishes the unemployment rate; as well as lifts the confidence of adolescents also. The coalition approach will likewise be valuable to start new measures to help jobseekers with employments, to grow workforce cooperation and to enhance profitability in an efficacious and a more thorough way. In addition to this, the Australian government built up various powerful approaches to raise the cooperation of work compel into empty occupations. For case, the acquaintance of the welfare with work bundle is a noteworthy case of such sorts of arrangements. These arrangements assume a noteworthy part to diminishing reliance on the welfare and augment motivations to enter the workforce into occupations. Moreover, the Australian government and RBA (Reserve Bank of Australia) diminished the loan fees to enhance the business level and wages of representatives inside country. It is outstanding that high unemployment rate decreases the wages of representatives. The RBA has chosen to lessen financing costs to raise work and wages inside country (Milner, Morrell and LaMontagne, 2014). Like this, one might say that, the Australian government is attempting its best to decrease unemployment rate and make occupations keeping in mind the end goal to enhance the economy of the country. Conclusion On the preface of the above examination, unemployment is a serious issue that is creating troubles for the economy of nation. The problem of unemployment is being serious day by day. Along with this, it can be inferred that, Australia is confronting the issue of unemployment nonstop after the year 2008. After the financial crisis of 2007-208, the unemployment has become a serious issue to all over the world. The unemployment rate of the Australia has expanded over the most recent five years. But, there can be seen a lessening in the unemployment rate in the year 2016 and 2017. Moreover, it is also observed that, the government of nation is very serious towards the issue of unemployment inside country. As a consequence, the Australian government is creating powerful plans, arrangements and methodologies to lessen the unemployment rate within nation. The government is serious for the positive economic growth and development of the nation. The improved economy is essential for the overa ll growth and development of nation. Due to the efforts of the Australian government, the unemployment rate has decreased in the previous year. The decreased unemployment rate indicates towards the economic growth of nation in recent years. References ABS. (2017). Labour Force, Australia. Available At: https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/6202.0 [Accessed On: 23rd May 2017] Ara Haque, R. and Haque, M.O. (2008). Gender, Ethnicity and Employment: Non-English Speaking Background Migrant Women in Australia. USA: Springer Science Business Media. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2005). Year Book Australia: 2006, Issue 88. Australia: Aust. Bureau of Statistics. Carvalho, P. (2015). Youth unemployment in Australia. Policy: A Journal of Public Policy and Ideas, 31(4), p.36. Castaeda, A.S., Serrani, L. and Sperotti, F. (2012). Youth Unemployment and Joblessness: Causes, Consequences, Responses. Australia: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Gans, J., King, S., Libich, J., Byford, M., Mankiw, G. and Stonecash, R. (2014). Principles of Economics PDF. Australia: Cengage Learning Australia. Helpman, E., Itskhoki, O. and Redding, S. (2010). Inequality and unemployment in a global economy. Econometrica, 78(4), pp. 1239-1283. Higley, J., Nieuwenhuysen, J.P. and Neerup, S. (2011). Immigration and the Financial Crisis: The United States and Australia Compared. USA: Edward Elgar Publishing. IndexMundi. (2016). Australia Unemployment rate. Available At: https://www.indexmundi.com/australia/unemployment_rate.html [Accessed On: 23rd May 2017] Kearns, K. (2013). The Big Picture PDF. Australia: Cengage Learning Australia. Milner, A., Morrell, S. and LaMontagne, A.D. (2014). Economically inactive, unemployed and employed suicides in Australia by age and sex over a 10-year period: what was the impact of the 2007 economic recession? International journal of epidemiology, p.dyu148. Murphy, P.J. (2013). A Decent Provision: Australian Welfare Policy, 1870 to 1949. Australia: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.. Palmer, D. (2017). Unemployment rate steady at 5.9pc in March as 60,000 jobs gained. Available At: https://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/economics/unemployment-rate-steady-at-59pc-in-march-as-60000-jobs-gained/news-story/ceee6af5befa833d795454fb630926d6 [Accessed On: 23rd May 2017] Richardson, S. (2006). Unemployment in Australia. Available At: https://www.flinders.edu.au/sabs/nils-files/publications/discussionpapers/Unemployment_in_Australia_2.pdf [Accessed On: 23rd May 2017] Seal, J.M., and Penrith, D. (2008). Live Work in Australia. Australia: Crimson Publishing. Skattebol, J., Hill, T., Griffiths, A. and Wong, M. (2015). Unpacking Youth Unemployment. Research Report 15, Social Policy Research Centre, UNSW, Sydney. Sriramesh, K. and Vercic, D. (2009). The Global Public Relations Handbook, Revised and Expanded Edition: Theory, Research, and Practice. NY: Routledge. TRADING ECONOMICS. (2017). Australia GDP Annual Growth Rate. Available At: https://www.tradingeconomics.com/australia/gdp-growth-annual [Accessed On: 23rd May 2017] TRADING ECONOMICS. (2017). Australia Unemployment Rate. Available At: https://www.tradingeconomics.com/australia/unemployment-rate [Accessed On: 23rd May 2017
Friday, March 27, 2020
Benefits to Getting a College Degree Being in college is hard in many ways: financially, academically, personally, socially, intellectually, physically. And most students question why they are trying to get a college degree at some point during their college experience. Simple reminders of the reasons why you want to get a college degree can help keep you on track when you feel like getting off. Tangible Reasons to Get a College Degree Youll make more money: figures range from several hundred thousand to a million dollars or more over your lifetime. Regardless of the details, however, youll have more income.Youll have a lifetime of increased opportunities. More job openings, more chances at promotions, and more flexibility with which jobs you take (and keep) are just a few of the doors that will be opened when you have your degree in hand.Youll be more empowered as an agent in your own life. Youll be better educated about the things that have an impact on your day-to-day existence: knowing how to read a lease, having an understanding of how the markets will influence your retirement accounts, and handling the finances of your family. A college education can empower you in all kinds of ways to be more in control of your lifes logistics.Youll be better able to weather adversity. From having more money available (see #1 in this list!) in a savings account to having marketable skills and an education during an economic downturn, having a degree can come in handy when life throws you a curve. Youll always be marketable. Having a college degree is becoming increasingly important in the job market. Consequently, having a degree now will open doors for the future, which will in turn open more doors and make you more marketable later ... and the cycle continues. Intangible Reasons to Get a College Degree Youll lead a more examined life. The critical thinking and reasoning skills you learn in college will stay with you for a lifetime.You can be an agent of change for others. Many social service positions, from doctor and lawyer to teacher and scientist, require a college degree (if not a graduate degree). Being able to help others means you have to educate yourself to do so through your time in school.Youll have more access to resources. In addition to the financial resources, youll have access to through your higher income, youll also have resources in all kinds of unexpected and intangible ways. Your roommate from freshman year who is now an attorney, your friend from chemistry class who is now a doctor, and the person you met at the alumni mixer who may offer you a job next week are the kinds of benefits and resources that are hard to plan for but that can make all the difference in the world.Youll have future opportunities in ways you may not be considering now. When you graduate from college, you may have never even given a second thought to graduate school. But as you get older, you may unexpectedly develop a strong interest in medicine, law, or education. Having that undergraduate degree already under your belt will allow you to pursue your dreams once you realize where they are going. Youll have a strong sense of pride and self. You may be the first person in your family to graduate from college or you may come from a long line of graduates. Either way, knowing you earned your degree will undoubtedly give a lifetime of pride to yourself, your family, and your friends.
Friday, March 6, 2020
Value of Flexible Management Essays Value of Flexible Management Paper Value of Flexible Management Paper Introduction Prior to researching this topic, my impression of management was limited. My concept was meshed within the framework of business and economics. Therefore, my definition of this construct was in error. For rectification, and foundational reference, management is the process of directing resources towards the accomplishment of a specific goal. This definition, one that I have derived from the compilation of many, incorporates two key variables. The first operative word in this definition is Ã¢â¬Å"resources. Resources can mean anything from money, employees, athletes, students, or just about any organized effort, group or cohort. The other functional variable in this definition is Ã¢â¬Å"goal. Ã¢â¬ The goal or aim of the organized effort can be defined in countless ways, not only in terms of economic gains or corporate success. This definition helps to illustrate just how much management filters through a gamete of industries. Management roles ar e found in business as well as sports, academics, and many other industries in many forms. Now that there is a foundation for what management is, why is this process important? Management has the ability to realize potential and direct resources in such a way that will optimize the return on the invested resources. Managers can create opportunities of advantage and promote successful goal attainment. Herein lays the importance of this role. Effective management ensures that with the application of minimal resources, there will be a return of maximum benefits. Since there are such benefits of good management, it is helpful to explore the variety of styles. This paper will, first, outline the major styles of management. While there are many different names and classifications of management styles; there are three main types. These include autocratic, participatory, and laissez-faire. The major difference of the three styles is the degree to which the manager directs the given resources. The autocratic style of management involves the managers making all the decisions for resources, with no other input. The participative style of management calls for the consultation of others, such as employees, in the decision-making process. In laissez-faire style of management, the manager has little to no part in the direction of resources. Considering the differences of these major styles of management, is there one style that takes precedence over another? Is there a Ã¢â¬Å"bestÃ¢â¬ managerial practice? In 2006, Harvard Business School published an article delving into the differences of management techniques (Silverthorne, 2006). The basis of the article explores how oneÃ¢â¬â¢s management style is heavily influenced by what kind of person they are. Therefore, managers need to be aware of the type of person they are to fully understand how they manage and in what situations they will be successful. This article supports the notion that a managerÃ¢â¬â¢s effectiveness is limited by their dominant style of management. In addition, because of personal dispositions, managers are unable to change themselves and must be careful to align themselves with situations that agree with their style of management. In reality, this construct is quite impractical. We are, oftentimes, unable to choose the situations in which we operate, professionally. How, then, does one manage effectively? Various management styles can be employed dependent on the culture of the business and the nature of the task, workforce, and resources. This idea supports that the prevailing circumstances dictate the most effective management style and managers should exercise a range of techniques. This is the subsequent focus of this discussion. While many are defined by a dominant style of management, an effective manager is one who can adapt their management techniques to a variety as they arise. Autocratic Management Autocratic Management is the style in which the manager has the greatest degree of control over the direction of the resources. In this style, managers make all decisions unilaterally. Managers usually dictate orders and employ a strict system of checks and balances to ensure adherence to protocols. Also know as directive management, managers tell their subordinates what to do, how to do it and when to have it completed by (Coye Belohlav, 1995, p 16). They assign roles and responsibilities, set standards, and define expectations. Within this style of management communication is one way, and go from management to resources. For example, when the manager speaks the employee listens and reacts. As defined above, the purpose of management is to direct resources toward a goal. In autocratic management, the manager sets all goals with specific deadlines to track progress. The autocratic manager is the principal of the decision making process. When a problem arise the resources report to the manager and the manager evaluates the options and makes the decision as to the direction and action that should be taken (Coye Belohlav, 1995). In terms of management feedback, the autocratic style of management calls for detailed instructions of changes that need to be made to the final product. Any rewards and recognition bestowed by autocratic managers are dictated by how well people follow directions. A perfect illustration of a working application of the autocratic style of management can be seen though the management employed in United States Military. Within the military the ranking system sets a scene for the role of the manager. In accordance with a strict chain of commands, members with a higher rank than another, have the responsibility to direct the actions of subordinates (See Exhibit A). Subordinates such as Airmen, in the U. S. Air Force, are charged with carrying out the orders of their Sergeants and other commanding officers. There is no discussion or exchange of ideas. Here, managers, or senior officers, give directions and expect that their resources are allocated according to exact orders. Goals are set by military officials and then handed down through the ranks. All strategy is developed by high ranking members, as well. Members of the military are rewarded with a successive rank as a result of properly serving within their assigned role. Though autocratic management seems limited, there are definite benefits to behold. Because there is clear direction given by managers who subscribe to the autocratic style, there is no confusion about expectations. This clear understanding of what is expected promotes tasks being completed according to deadline and product consistency. Along with the positive aspects of the autocratic management style there are certain negative points. With this type of management, employees or resources have no input in the tasks that they are given (Vanderburg, 2004). This causes the producer to be disconnected from the product. Resources do not feel valued and have no ownership in their work. Therefore there is a decrease in motivation and a high turnover rate. (See Exhibit B) Participative Management The participative style of management is different from autocratic in that there is a lesser degree of direction from the manager. A participative manager, rather than making exclusive decisions, seeks to incorporate others in the process. Participative managers possibly include subordinates, peers, superiors and other stakeholders in the decision-making process (Coleman, 2004). Because this type of manager considers the views of others, decisions are often made based on the agreement of the majority. Although there is major consideration of external sources, the most participative activity remains within the immediate team of peers. The participative manager allows less control and direction to transfer to subordinates. The question of how much influence may vary on the personal preferences and beliefs of the manager. This style of management may also be known as the democratic style. The communication is quite extensive in this style of management. There is considerable exchange in both directions, from manager to resources and vice-versa (Coleman, 2004). The ideal is for the majority to reach a consensus over a business decision. The goal setting process is also done in a cooperative effort. Participative managers decide upon goals with the consideration of outside ideas, as well. The accessibility of reaching these goals is also a point of discussion in the participative style of management. This type of manager has a paternal quality in that the well-being and success of subordinates, peers, superiors and other resources are taken into account (Coleman, 2004). Therefore the decision-making process is not unilateral. The participative management style promotes constructive manger feedback. If changes are to be made to the product, there is discussion of the direction that should be taken. Participative managers give positive feedback, as well. This is in line with the paternal characteristics of this style of management. When deciding on rewards and recognition, participative management incorporates the performance review process. Because participative managers welcome the active role of subordinates, they are willing to discuss employee performance, celebrate strengths, and develop weaknesses. This type of management is, perhaps, the most prevalent in the infrastructure of many large corporations, today. Corporations such as IBM, Home Depot, Pitney Bowes and countless others have embraced participative management style. It is very common for employees to operate in cohorts and subgroups and work as teams. Many are given year-end performance reviews and are able to access company management. The participative style of management can be particularly useful when complex decisions need to be made that require a range of specialist skills. From the overall businesss point of view, job satisfaction and quality of work will improve. By creating a sense of ownership in the company, participative management instills a sense of pride and motivates employees to increase productivity in order to achieve their goals. However, the decision-making process is severely slowed down, and the need of a consensus may avoid taking the best decision for the business. It can also grant decision-making responsibility to unqualified parties. In some cases of participatory management, decisions are swayed by politics and hidden agendas; which can also act as a barrier to the best business decision. (See Exhibit C) Laissez-faire Management The management style with the least degree of managerial direction of resources is known as laissez-faire. In this particular style the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s role is very much Ã¢â¬Å"hands-offÃ¢â¬ and peripheral (McCoy, 1996). The resources, be it employees, or others; manage their own area of business. There is an evasion of official managerial duties and uncoordinated delegation is, often times, inevitable. The communication within laissez-faire management is horizontal but flat. There is little to no communication that occurs in comparison to the autocratic and participatory styles of management. With no communication there is no opportunity for goal setting. Resources have to be internally motivated and set their own goals. Managers who participate in this type of management also incorporate unilateral decision making within their framework (McCoy, 1996). However, it is not the manager who engages in this practice. It is the subordinates and resources who are totally responsible for making all decisions. Because managers are uninvolved in the production processes in laissez-faire management, they provide no feedback or rewards for a job well done. A real-world example of laissez-faire management can be seen in partnerships of colleges. We can think in terms of a law firm, a private medical practice, a consulting firm or any other cooperative effort in which all parties posses a similar level of expertise. A more vivid illustration can be made through the following example. As emergency room doctors, with equal training, receive a patient, they simply begin to take action without formal direction. As we can glean from the above example, there are certain situations in which it is effective to apply laissez-faire management. An environment in which employees are highly skilled, experienced and educated is a prime setting to apply the laissez-faire practices. This creates a setting where employees have pride in their work and the drive to do it successfully on their own. Employees who thrive under this type of management are usually trust worthy and experienced. On the contrary this style of management would be detrimental in situations were the resources needed direction and lack experience. Laissez-faire management may cause employees to feel insecure at the unavailability of a manager. The manager does not provide regular feedback to let employees know how well they are doing or how they may improve. This leads to a lack of staff focus and sense of direction, which in turn leads to much dissatisfaction, and a poor company image. (See Exhibit D) The Most Effective Style After considering the three major styles of management above, there must be one model that supersedes the others. Perhaps we are more apt to choose participative management as the most effective. This would not be a far reaching selection, since it was the style of management that prevailed in the 1970s (Robbins, 2005). The participative style of management was seen as an amalgamation of democratic styles of management. It represented the most successful qualities of each style. The participative style of management is alive and well in the infrastructure of business models. It is probably the style of management that the majority of people are familiar with, and the style that most mangers strive to imitate. However, I do not accept that perfection has been attained within the participative style of management. There are very apparent limitation like slow business processes and difficult decision making that can undercut the best interest of a business (Keef, 2004). If the participative style of management is not the most effective; is there a Ã¢â¬Å"bestÃ¢â¬ practice? Although participative management is quite popular, we may be witness to a shift in ideology. More and more, business leaders and managers are subscribing to the effectiveness of versatility rather than one dominant management style (Sumukadas Sawhney, 2004, p 1013). It is more efficient for a manager to apply the most effective style of management as situations arise rather than use a cookie-cutter approach. This flexible approach to management is the most practical when considering todayÃ¢â¬â¢s changing technology, global trading and dynamics of business. Managers must be willing to abandon traditional ways of decision-making and adapt to their environment, in order to stay competitive and collect the greatest return on invested resources. In such a growing, diversified business landscape, one manager may be responsible for new hires, project management, and resource development. In order to best handle the new hires, this manager must take an autocratic approach, and painstakingly detail expectation. When acting as project manager, this same manager must incorporate a more participative style. Projects are, usually, assigned to a team of resources that come together in a collective exchange of expertise. The manager would then garner optimal results by delegating resource development to industry experts, and taking a laissez-faire approach. It is most valuable for one manager to be all things to all people. In essence, the most effective style of manager knows what style to apply in every situation. Though they were not managers in the conventional business industry, Bobby Knight and Mike Krzyzewski, dubbed Coach K, are fine examples of effective managerial practices. To further expand the analogy, I offer that their business was college basketball; their resources were young athletes, and their goal was the glory of a national championship. Many argue that these two coaches are among the most successful in the game of college basketball; though, their overt management styles could not be more different. Both coaches support the idea that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to exhibit various style of management is the most effective style of management. Both coaches exhibit key behaviors that are inline with flexibility in management. Both coaches are aware of and understand their personal assumptions and human nature. This promotes the awareness of how human nature influences their behaviors and automatic responses to given situations. This understanding of personal tendencies and over styles, allows a manger to rise about inherent responses and adapt their leadership and management skills to effectively govern a circumstance. Coach Bobby Knight was overtly a top-down, autocratic manager to his college basketball players. He would throw chairs, yell, get physical, and tightly supervise his team toward winning games. However, as Coach KnightÃ¢â¬â¢s style would change as he spent more time with his team (Sliverthorne, 2006, p 2). His control and direction was relaxed as he was confident in the training and ability of his players. Over the years, Coach Knight managed his athletes according to their needs for direction. He exhibited Ã¢â¬Å"tough-loveÃ¢â¬ and versatility in management, and led many victories in college basketball. Coach Mike KrzyzewskiÃ¢â¬â¢s overt management style would be defined at the other end of the spectrum. He had more of a laissez-fair management philosophy. Coach K believed that Ã¢â¬Å"people were fundamentally good and they want to do their best and would be self-motivated to perform. Ã¢â¬ (Silverthorne, 2006, p 1). Though Coach K had this inherent approach, he definitely knew how to mobilize and motivate his players. He knew how to toughen up and manage his players more autocratically. He also determined his management techniques according to the tasks and resources at hand, which lead to many won games. There is a twist to this pseudo-case study of mangers. In the 1960s, Coach Knight was a basketball coach at the U. S. Military Academy at West Point, where he recruited a young Mike Krzyzewski. Ã¢â¬Å"Coach K was a young scrappy kid. He wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the best athlete on the team, but he had a lot of leadership potential,Ã¢â¬ remarked Knight (Silverthorne, 2006, p 2). After Krzyzewski left the Army, he joined Knight as a graduate assistant at Indiana, where Knight was a valuable mentor. Though very different in nature, the coaches have been great friends for many years. Though these coaches have very different overt styles, their situational adaptability allows them to share in the success of effective management and many college basketball victories. Conclusion There is greater value found in managing according to a given situation than applying a Ã¢â¬Å"one-size-fits-allÃ¢â¬ approach. The three major types of management all have effective practices. Therefore it is more appropriate to be autocratic to resources that require detailed direction, participative to peers and engaged employees, and laissez-faire to high-level experts. A aluable lesson can be gained from successful managers like Bobby Knight and Coach Krzyzewski. In order to nurture their resources to create the greatest return on investment, they had to become all things to all men. In the end it is adaptability that will not only support survival, but success, as well. References Coleman, P. T. (2004) Implicit Theories of Organizational Power and Priming Effects on Managerial Power- Sharing Decisions: An Experimental Study. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 34, no. 2: 297Ã¢â¬â321. Retrieved October 24, 2007, from tc. columbia. edu/icccr/Documents/Coleman/AbstractImplicitTheories. df Coye, R. W. , and J. A. Belohlav. (1995) An Exploratory Analysis of Employee Participation. Group and Organization Management 20, no. 1: 4Ã¢â¬â17. Greenfield, W. M. (2004) Decision Making and Employee Engagement. Employment Relations Today 31, no. 2: 13Ã¢â¬â24. Kaner, S. , and L. Lind. (1996) Facilitators Guide to Participatory Decision-making. Gabriola Island, BC, Canada: New Society Publishers. Keef, L. (2004) Generating Quality Interaction. Occupational Health Safety 73, no. 5:30Ã¢â¬â31. McCoy, T. J. (1996)Creating an Open Book Organization: Where Employees Think and Act Like Business Partners. New York: Amacom. Robbins, S. P. Essentials of Organizational Behavior. (2005)8th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Silverthorne, S. (2006) Ã¢â¬Å"On Managing with Bobby Knight and Ã¢â¬Å"Coach KÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬ Lessons from The Classroom. Boston, Massachusetts. Retrieved October 27, 2007, from http://hbswk. hbs. edu/pdf/item/5464. pdf Sumukadas, N. , and R. Sawhney. (2004): Workforce Agility through Employee Involvement. IIE Transactions 36, no. 10 1011Ã¢â¬â1021. Vanderburg, D. (2004) The Story of Semco: The Company that Humanized Work. Bulletin of Science, Technology Society 24, no. : 430Ã¢â¬â34. Retrieved October 24, 2007 from brainfuel. tv/maverick-the-story-of-semco-an-amazing- workplace Weiss, W. H. (1998) Improving Employee Performance: Major Supervisory Responsibility. Supervision, 6Ã¢â¬â8. Exhibits Exhibit A List of Military Rank ________________________________________ Officers LetterNavyArmy/Air Force/Marines O-12 (GAm ) Grand Admiral O-11(FAm ) Flee t Admiral(COp) Chief of Operations O-10(Adm ) Admiral(Gen) General O-9(VAdm ) Vice Admiral(LtG) Lieutenant General O-8(RAdmU) Rear Admiral(MG ) Major General O-7(RADmL) Commodore(BG ) Brigadier General O-6(Capt ) Captain(Col) Colonel O-5(Cdr ) Commander(LtC) Lieutenant Colonel O-4(LCdr ) Lieutenant Commander(Maj) Major O-3(Lt ) Lieutenant (Cap) Captain O-2(LtJG ) Lieutenant Junior Grade(1Lt) First Lieutenant O-1(Ens ) Ensign(2Lt) Second Lieutenant Warrant Officers W-4(CW4) Chief Warrant Officer W-3(CW3) Chief Warrant Officer W-2(CW2) Chief Warrant Officer W-1(WO1) Warrant Officer Enlisted Personnel GradeNavyMarinesAir ForceArmy E-9(MCPO) Master Chief Petty Officer(SgtMaj) Sergeant Major(CMSgt) Chief Master Sergeant(CSM) Command Sergeant Major E-9(MGySgt) Master Gunnery Sergeant(SGM) Sergeant Major E-8(SCPO) Senior Cheif Petty Officer(1stSgt) First Sergeant(SMSgt) Senior Master Sergeant(1SG) First Sergeant E-8(MSgt ) Master Sergeant(MSG) Master Sergeant E-7(CPO ) Chief Petty Officer(GySgt ) Gunnery Sergeant(MSgt ) Master Sergeant(SFC) Sergeant First Class E-7(PSG) Platoon Sergeant E-6(PO1 ) Petty Officer First Class(SSgt ) Staff Sergeant(TSgt ) Technical Sergeant(SSG) Staff Sergeant E-5(PO2 ) Petty Officer Second Class(Sgt ) Sergeant(SSgt ) Staff Sergeant(Sgt) Sergeant E-4(PO3 ) Petty Officer Third Class(Cpl ) Corporal(Sgt ) Sergeant(Cpl) Corporal E-4(SrA ) Senior Airman(Sp4) Specialist 4 E-3( ) Seaman(LCpl ) Lance Corporal(A1C ) Airman First Class(PFC) Private FIrst Class E-2(SA ) Seaman Apprentice(PFC ) Private First Class(Amn ) Airman(PV2) Private E-1(SR ) Seaman Recruit(Pvt ) Private(AB ) Airman Basic(PV1) Private The Value of Flexible Management I. Abstract II. Introduction a. Thesis: Ã¢â¬Å"While many are defined by a dominant style of management, an effective manager is one who can adapt their management techniques to a variety as they arise. Ã¢â¬ III. Body a. Define autocratic Style i. Give examples of what situations require this style of management b. Define participatory Style i. Give examples of what situations require this style of management c. Define laissez 1 ii. Example 2 iii. Anti-Model IV. Conclusion a. Restate thesis and summarize the value of adapting to situational nuances V. Exhibits that may be relevant VI.
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Is America a country that is in a constant state of flux as it is in a constant state of flux as it relates to identity or is it - Essay Example Therefore, it is only appropriate that debate regarding the character of the nation, one which is shaped by political convictions and cultural factors should be pushed towards a decisive conclusion. It is only through the resolution of such debate can there be a better appreciation of national and social traits be achieved, which would consequently lead to solutions for other problems in society. In presenting the arguments involved in the said debates, two articles may help. These are Who and What is American: the Things We Continue to Hold in Common by Lewis Lapham and Dinosaur Dreams: Reading the BoneÃ¢â¬â¢s of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Psychic Mascot by Jack Hitt. Both articles are attempts at understanding the American psyche, especially in relation to identity. LaphamÃ¢â¬â¢s article is more direct in presenting his arguments that Americans have the tendency to constantly make changes in there perspectives, stand, or tastes, many aspects, from the most important to the most trivial. On the other hand, Hitt insists that Americans are to use old symbols in order to represent their resilience and their proclivity to stabilize everything. Although both may have differences, it is obvious though these articles ultimately reach an agreement that the American mode of thinking is actually open to changes. Therefore, it is clear that the country itself cannot avoid being a state of flux always. Just like all other societies in different parts of the globe, America continues to evolve. Naturally, this means that changes are still occurring in whatever aspect, whether it is political, cultural, and economic. Even if the country is actually centuries old, its development never ceases because of the simple fact that its people are never contented about what they already have. This is not a bad thing though. In fact, the reason why innovations are made, ones that improve industry, make lifestyles more convenient, and cultures more advance is that Americans are always trying to discover something new. As American society continues to evolve, it can only be in a state of flux, largely triggered by its response to challenges of existing situations. One proof of this continuous instability is in the field of politics. It is quite clear that a huge majority of Americans voted for President Obama in the 2008 elections. However, now that he is in power, it did not take long for many to shift sides in politics. Lapham explains that Ã¢â¬Å"democratic politics trades in only two markets Ã¢â¬â the market in expectation and the market in blame.Ã¢â¬ (January 1992) This means that when Americans feel that their expectations are not met, they automatically lay the blame on the on the person which they previously believed could solve problems of society. Because of this attitude, there will always be the impression that Americans are rarely contented with what they have; hence, the inclination towards flux. There is, however, a counter-argument to LaphamÃ¢â¬â¢ s theory. This articulated by Hitt as he tries to explain the AmericansÃ¢â¬â¢ penchant for dinosaur, particularly the T-rex. Hitt points out that they tend to hold on to old symbols or extinct objects such as the dinosaur. He explains that the dinosaurÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"periodic rebirth in pop culture neatly signals deep tectonic shifts in our sense of ourself as a country.Ã¢â¬